The use of single-crystal sapphire as a material for various pipes is associated with:
primarily with its physical and mechanical properties:
with high chemical inertness - for protective covers
when working in aggressive environments;
with high mechanical strength - for structural
products withstanding high pressure;
with a high melting point - for structural products,
working at high temperatures;
with high transparency - to ensure the passage
radiation in a wide range of wavelengths:
from 200 nm to 5 µm for control and measurement purposes.
In this case, depending on the size, the pipes can be
made either by the Stepanov method (EFG):
by pulling with a pipe shaper immediately
or from ordinary single crystals:
grown by the Kyropoulos method.
Moreover, if pipes are obtained by the Stepanov method:
small diameters up to 40 mm, then from crystals obtained
the Kyropoulos method is used to make massive:
pipes with a diameter up to 250 mm:
Minimum internal pipe diameter:
grown by the Stepanov method is about 0.8 mm.